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Despised by the natives for their imperious and condescending manner, many turned out to be cruel and abusive despots. Even if a minority proved kinder and gentler, the general impression their rule left behind was not favorable. Even their fellow Christians disliked them, as witnessed by one churchman who wrote home complaining:. They devoted themselves to all kinds of debauchery and allowed their womenfolk to spend whole nights at wild parties; they mixed with trashy people and drank the most delicious wines.
Such a situation could not endure, and in , one of the Crusader states fell back into Moslem control. The Second Crusade followed a generation or so after the First. It was preached by St Bernard, a leading Cistercian theologian who declared that "The Christian glories in the death of a pagan, because thereby Christ himself is glorified". He also pointed out that anyone who kills an unbeliever does not commit homicide but malicide; in other words they kill not a man but an evil. He knew how to sell a crusade to believers.
His spiel was reminiscent of that of a high-pressure salesman selling to credulous punters:. But to those of you who are merchants, men quick to seek a bargain, let me point out the advantages of this great opportunity. Do not miss them. Take up the sign of the cross and you will find indulgence for all sins that you humbly confess. The cost is small, the reward is great Once again churchmen promoted anti-Semitism in Germany and France.
Without the aid of a single enchanted goose the crusaders once again found unbelievers in their midst. A number of crusaders were the descendants of those who had gone on the First Crusade. This time, both Byzantines and the Turks were ready for the barbarian Franks and plotted together to exterminate them. Betrayed by Byzantium the Second Crusade was nearly obliterated as the crusaders tried to pass through Asia Minor.
The initial object of the Second Crusade was to recapture Edessa in what is now eastern Turkey , which had fallen to the Muslims in Initial contingents were led by military commanders like the bishops of Metz and Toul. On the way, travelling by sea, the crusaders besieged Lisbon, which at that time was a Muslim city.
After four months the garrison surrendered, having been promised their lives and their property if they capitulated. They did capitulate and were then massacred. Only about a fifth of the original crusader force got as far as Syria, where the real crusade started. It proved a failure, at least partially because tactical targets were selected for religious rather than military reasons.
A military tactician might have gone for Aleppo, but the crusade leaders agreed on mounting an attack on Damascus, apparently because they recognised its name as biblical.
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The leaders argued amongst themselves until the crusade collapsed in , having failed to take either Edessa or Damascus. The whole thing had been a disaster. As Runciman put it:. What little of the expedition made it to the Holy Lands ended up fighting with the survivors and descendants of the First Crusade. The result was that most participants in the Second Crusade returned to Europe empty-handed, a pitiful troupe of whom Saint Bernard was forced to admit, "I must call him blessed who is not tainted by this.
The Muslim Turks extended their rule to Egypt soon afterwards. St Bernard had been promised a victory by God, but instead of this he had provided a complete disaster. Bernard and his supporters tried hard to work out why God's purpose had been so badly frustrated. Perhaps the best solution was that the outcome had been a great success after all, because it had transferred so many Christian warriors from God's earthly army to his heavenly one. Not everyone was convinced. Meanwhile the Christian forces resident in the East accommodated themselves to the realities of Eastern life.
Eventually they would come to terms with the fact that until their arrival Muslims, Jews and Christians had lived together in amity. Resident Christians often preferred their old Muslim masters to their new Christian ones. Muslim captives who chose to convert to Christianity rather than die were allowed to, but only if there were no further monetary complications. When Cairo offered 60, dinars to the Templars for the return of a putative convert, his Christian instruction was promptly suspended and he was sent in chains to Cairo to be mutilated and hanged.
Such incidents brought little glory to either side, but it is fair to say that Muslim princes generally conducted themselves with a degree of honour and chivalry lacking amongst the Christians. In , almost 90 years after it had been captured by the Christian army of the First Crusade, Jerusalem was retaken by the Muslim warrior Saladin c.
Originating from Tikrit in modern-day Iraq, Saladin had first demonstrated his military prowess in the s in campaigns against crusaders in Palestine. Succeeding his uncle as a vizier in Egypt, he conquered Egypt in and then set about improving that country's economy and military strength. Following further campaigns in Syria and Mesopotamia, in he proclaimed a jihad that led to his capturing Jerusalem for the Muslims in the following year.
In addition to his abilities as a military leader, Saladin is renowned for his chivalry and merciful nature. It is known, for example, that in his struggles against the crusaders, he provided medical assistance on the battlefield to the wounded of both sides, and even allowed Christian physicians to visit Christian prisoners.
Once the battle to retake Jerusalem was over, no one was killed or injured, and not a building was looted. The captives were permitted to ransom themselves, and those who could afford to do so ransomed their vassals as well. Many thousands could not afford their ransom and were held to be sold as slaves. The military monks, who could have used their vast wealth to save their fellow Christians from slavery, declined to do so. The head of the Church, the patriarch Heraclius, and his clerics looked after themselves.
The Muslims saw Heraclius pay his ten dinars for his own ransom and leave the city bowed with the weight of the gold that he was carrying, followed by carts laden with other valuables. As the prisoners who had not been ransomed were led off to a life of slavery, Saladin's brother Malik al-Adil took pity.
He asked his brother for 1, of them as a reward for his services, and when he was granted them he immediately gave them their liberty. This triggered further generosity amongst the victorious commanders, culminating in Saladin offering gifts from his own treasury to the Christian widows and orphans. As a contemporary historian has remarked, "His mercy and kindness were in strange contrast to the deeds of the Christian conquerors of the First Crusade".
In contrast to the generally honourable behaviour of the Muslims, the Christians repeatedly made promises under oath and them reneged upon them, often with the encouragement of the priesthood. In the King of Jerusalem, Guy, who had been captured by Saladin, was released. Guy had solemnly sworn that he would leave the country and never again take arms against the Muslims. Immediately, a cleric was found to release him from his oath.
Despite this sort of behaviour, Muslim leaders generally stuck to their own promises. They were rather bemused by the cynical behaviour of the Western Christians. Often the cynicism worked to the Muslims" advantage. For example, Saladin was pleasantly surprised to find that Italian city states were prepared to sell him high quality weapons to be used against crusaders. When the Emperor in Constantinople heard of the Muslim victory, he sent an embassy to congratulate its leaders. Eastern Christians had already generally allied themselves with the Muslims, regarding them as fairer and more civilised rulers than the followers of the Church of Rome.
Now they asked to stay in Jerusalem, were allowed to do so, and gave "prodigious service" to their new masters. With Jerusalem no longer in Christian hands, some sort of reprisal was called for — another crusade — but this time one that was well-organized and well-equipped, and no one better to do that than the foremost regents of Europe. The rulers of Germany, France and England joined forces in the name of God to avenge this affront to Christendom at large.
The Archbishop of Canterbury, Baldwin, went along too. Richard had been crowned on 3 rd September in with crusading fervour already in the air. English Christians emulated their continental co-religionists, and took to murdering Jews, starting with those who had come to offer presents to their new king. This sparked further persecutions throughout the country, most notably in York. Soon the crusaders, including those who had engaged in the murder of Jews, departed for the East along with their continental co-religionists.
Frederick Barbarossa died on the way, an event that mystified the crusaders, but which Muslims immediately recognised as a miracle wrought by God for the one true faith. Philip and Richard squabbled and attempted to bribe each other's armies to change allegiance three gold pieces per month for English knights who joined Philip: four for French knights who joined Richard. Eventually, Philip gave up and went home. Richard went on to capture Acre in Saladin was unable to pay for the release of the survivors quickly enough, so Richard ordered the massacre of his 2, captives, many of them women and children.
They waited in line, each watching the one in front have their throat slit. Wives were slaughtered at the side of their husbands, children at the side of their parents while bishops blessed the proceedings. Corpses were then cut open in the hope of finding swallowed jewels. Richard found further success difficult to come by, and a truce was made with Saladin, although Richard felt free to break it when it suited him.
Despite Richard's behaviour, Saladin continued to treat him with respect when they met on the battlefield, apparently because Richard's fighting prowess impressed him. The Lionheart's treatment by his Muslim enemy contrasted with his treatment by his own Christian allies. On his way home later that year Richard was captured and imprisoned by a fellow crusader, Leopold, Duke of Austria. Grandes Chroniques de France de Charles V. The Fourth Crusade He devised a means by which to avoid the problems that had destroyed the previous two Crusades.
He avoided the division of leadership by putting himself in charge alone. To confound the supposed treachery of the double-dealing Byzantines, he chose to send the next wave of crusaders by sea, enabling them to avoid Byzantium completely. Problems developed before this Crusade even got on board. All participants thought someone else was paying for the "rental" of the ships. When the crusaders began to arrive in Venice they were greeted with outstretched hands but no one had any money to pay their passage.
Although intended to regain the Holy Land from the Muslims by way of Egypt, the crusade was hijacked by the Venetians and directed against the Christian cities of Zara and then Constantinople, which offered a softer target and richer pickings. Zara, one of Venice's subject states on the eastern shore of the Adriatic Sea, had recently revolted from the city's maritime empire and, to avoid Venetian reprisal, the people of Zara had delivered their city into the Pope's embrace. Zara was now one of the Papal States, an currently under construction by the Roman Church.
In exchange for cash, the Venetians contracted with the crusaders to stop in at Zara on their way and force it back under Venice's control. When he learned about their agreement with the Venetians, he withdrew his support of the Crusade, along with his funding. This too made no difference. The crusaders sailed to Zara and delivered it back into Venetian hands as they had been paid to do. There the crusaders came upon a Byzantine exile, a pretender to the throne who had recently been exiled from Byzantium and who offered them a substantial sum if they would put him on the throne.
With the sanction of the Venetians who saw nothing but advantage in causing turmoil in Byzantium their trading rival , the crusaders were diverted again. This time they headed in the direction of Constantinople. There, the crusaders' approach inspired panic among the Byzantines. The reigning Emperor, along with others, fled Constantinople. Meeting no resistance, the crusaders entered the city and set their "Latin" nominee for Emperor on the throne, then headed of for the Holy Land. Almost as soon as they sailed out of Constantinople's harbor, their Latin pretender was murdered.
When the news of his assassination reached them, the crusaders turned their ships around and headed back to secure their supply lines. When the crusaders found the city bolted tight against them, the stage was set for a siege. Contrary to historical precedent, these crusading marauders accomplished the seemingly impossible. Byzantium fell to siege for the first time ever to the descendants of the Byzantines' nominal allies, western Europeans. Constantine's "New Rome" finally fell to mercenaries from the original Rome. Constantinople was taken, the Emperor deposed, and Baldwin of Flanders was set up in his place.
The great library there was destroyed when the crusaders ransacked it, then stabled their horses there. Ancient learning and literature was lost in that catastrophe, almost certainly including the complete works of ancient authors whose writings now exist only in tattered fragments. Some were entirely lost. The victorious crusaders amused themselves in the usual way, even though this was the capital of Christendom.
As well as the standard bout of destruction, the men of the cross desecrated imperial tombs, plundered churches, stole holy relics, wrecked houses, vandalised libraries, destroyed whatever loot they could not carry, raped nuns, and murdered at will. They also set a prostitute on the patriarch's throne in Sancta Sophia, the Church of the Holy Wisdom, the greatest Church in Christendom.
Later a Latin i. Roman Catholic patriarch was installed, and the Venetians shipped off the remaining treasures to their own city, where some of them remain to this day. The Eastern Churches still harbour bitter resentment about the behaviour of Western Christians during this time. Here is a modern Orthodox bishop on the subject:. Eastern Christendom has never forgotten those three appalling days of pillage. What shocked the Greeks more than anything was the wanton and systematic sacrilege of the Crusaders.
How could men who had specially dedicated themselves to God's service treat the things of God in such a way? As the Byzantines watched the Crusaders tear to pieces the altar and icon screen in the Church of the Holy Wisdom, and set prostitutes on the Patriarch's throne, they must have felt that those who did such things were not Christians in the same sense as themselves.
The Western Church saw nothing wrong with its conduct. It is true that the Pope was initially irritated by the crusade having been diverted to attack Zara. But His Holiness was soon reconciled by a victory in his name over the Emperor, and any pretence that the crusade was ever intended to fight the infidel was abandoned. A papal legate, Peter of Saint-Marcel, issued a decree absolving the crusaders from having to proceed further to fight the Muslims.
The new Emperor in Constantinople, Baldwin, wrote to the Pope about the sack of the city as "a miracle that God had wrought". The Pope rejoiced in the Lord and gave his approval without reserve. Modern historians tend to take a different view. In Pope Innocent III launched crusades against the Cathars in southern France, and in against Muslims in Spain, but it was difficult to raise interest in expeditions to the more distant and dangerous Holy Land. The year saw the so-called Children's Crusade. This crusade was preached by a French shepherd boy aged around 12, inspired by a vision of Christ.
Christ gave him a letter for the King of France, and despite the King's indifference, the boy succeeded in rousing 30, recruits, none over the age of The crusader children were blessed by priests and marched off to Marseilles. The idea was that God would protect them and supply them with suitable fighting skills. He would even part the sea so that they could walk from Marseilles to the Holy Land.
But God declined to perform his promised miracle at Marseilles.
Instead two men, monks according to one tradition, Hugh the Iron and William the Pig according to another, offered the children ships free of charge to take them to their destination. Most accepted, embarked, and were promptly sold as slaves to African Muslims. This was not an isolated incident. Roman Catholic traders were engaged in an established commerce involving the sale of young boys to Muslim rulers. Some 40, German children also set out on the crusade, but God declined to perform his promised miracle for them either. How many ever arrived to fight, if any at all, is not known. Few ever returned home.
Meanwhile in the Holy Land the resident Christians were becoming ever more accustomed to Eastern life. They wore robes and turbans, ate Eastern food, married Eastern women and learned Eastern medicine. Alliances were made between powerful rulers, often irrespective of religion. Christians accepted Muslims as their feudal Lords and Muslims accepted Christians as theirs. A perceived success in hindsight, the siege of Constantinople reinvigorated Western Europeans' interest in religious warfare with the East.
It was directed not against the Moslem East but at lands inside Europe, a shift in focus for a formal "Crusade". The days when Crusades could be justified as an extension of the "Truce of God" were by now long past. Even so, the rewards were the same as for any other crusade, namely a guaranteed place in heaven. This proved very attractive to many, since it was much less risky to go on a Holy War - across hundreds of miles of hostile barren lands and even more hostile population. Not even trying to head east but fighting fellow European Christians seemed to many so far from the true spirit of crusading.
So Innocent's campaign was never numbered with the other Crusades. It was not the "Fifth Crusade" but the "Albigensian Crusade". For more on the Cathars and the crusade against them, visit this leading website on the Cathars. The "Crusade" was preached in France by a peasant boy named Stephen from a village near Vendome in France, and a boy named Nicholas from Cologne in Germany, encoraged in both places by the local clergy.
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The sorry business was related by a chronicler:. In this year  occurred an outstanding thing and one much to be marveled at, for it is unheard of throughout the ages. About the time of Easter and Pentecost, without anyone having preached or called for it and prompted by I know not what spirit, many thousands of boys, ranging in age from six years to full maturity, left the plows or carts which they were driving, the flocks which they were pasturing, and anything else which they were doing.
This they did despite the wishes of their parents, relatives, and friends who sought to make them draw back. Suddenly one ran after another to take the cross. Thus, by groups of twenty, or fifty, or a hundred, they put up banners and began to journey to Jerusalem. They were asked by many people on whose advice or at whose urging they had set out upon this path.
They were asked especially since only a few years ago many kings, a great many dukes, and innumerable people in powerful companies had gone there and had returned with the business unfinished. The present groups, morever, were stfll of tender years and were neither strong enough nor powerful enough to do anything. Everyone, therefore, accounted them foolish and imprudent for trying to do this. They briefly replied that they were equal to the Divine will in this matter and that, whatever God might wish to do with them, they would accept it willingly and with humble spirit.
They thus made some little progress on their journey. Some were turned back at Metz, others at Piacenza, and others even at Rome. Still others got to Marseilles, but whether they crossed to the Holy Land or what their end was is uncertain. One thing is sure: that of the many thousands who rose up, only very few returned. Source: Chronica Regiae Coloniensis Continuatio prima , s. It was led by Cardinal Pelagius of Lucia and lasted from to Although ultimately intended to recover Jerusalem, the main force was initially directed against Egypt.
Damietta a Mediterranean port on the Nile delta was besieged. Saladin proposed a deal. He would cede Jerusalem, all central Palestine, and Galilee if the crusaders would spare Damietta. Pelagius rejected this offer, against military advice. Damietta duly fell to the Christians, confirming God's support for the Crusade.
Surviving inhabitants of Damietta were sold into slavery, and their children handed over to the Christian priests to be baptised and trained into the service of the Church. If the crusade leaders had been willing to read books ratherthan burn them, the campagn might have been more successfull in the longer term. As it was, the ignorance that had afflicted the West since the Fall of Rome now became apparent.
If Pelagius had read Herodotus, he would have known about the annual flooding of the Nile. But virtually no one in Western Europe could read Greek. Pelagious and his knights had landed on the shores of the Nile just at the time of the annual flood. Trapped in high waters, they met a watery end at hands of the natives there. Saladin soon recovered Damietta by force.
The Christian campaign had been another failure, undermined by a combination of personal and national jealousies along with the lack of strategic insight on the part of Cardinal Pelagius, a man who has been described as "an ignorant and obstinate fanatic". As the defeated Christians sailed off, stories of their atrocities triggered a wave of persecution of Christians communities in Egypt, which until then had happily coexisted with their Muslim masters for centuries.
Like the Albigensian Crusade, the next European expedition to the East is not numbered. The Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II organised his own crusade while under sentence of excommunication, and pursued it between and Despite the Pope's machinations and much to his embarrassment Frederick's military and strategic skill led to a negotiated settlement under which Nazareth, Bethlehem, and Jerusalem came under Christian control. On his return to Europe the victorious Frederick crushed the papal forces that had been sent to destroy him, and the Pope had no choice but to lift the sentence of excommunication.
This one also disqualified as being too far from the spirit of crusading. Even after Frederick managed to return Jerusalem to Christian control, the pope would not acknowledge it as a "Crusade" Moslem forces retook Jerusalem soon afterwards, where it remained until the twentieth century. The Sixth Crusade was proposed by Pope Gregory IX, but found few takers, previous crusades having proved such failures. The Seventh Crusade lasted from to Once again Damietta was captured, and once again the Sultan offered to exchange it for Jerusalem.
Once again the offer was rejected, and once again the Muslims won Damietta back by force of arms.
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Louis himself was captured and had to be ransomed for , bezants gold coins. After his release he went to the Holy Land but failed to recover the holy cities, and so gave up and went home. Innocent's successor, Pope Alexander IV, tried to organise yet another crusade, this time against the Mongols, but he was unsuccessful. Had he had a better grasp of strategy he might instead have allied Western Christendom with the Asian powers.
Nestorian Christianity was still influential in Asia, and the Mongols might easily have become allies, some of their leaders having already been baptised. Western and Eastern forces combined could have overcome the forces of Islam. In the Great Khan Mongka, whose mother had been a Nestorian Christian, had offered to recover Jerusalem for the Christians, if they would co-operate.
But European Christians were unwilling to co-operate with each other, much less a remote and unknown semi-heathen whose mother had been a heretic. In time the victorious Mongols would themselves convert to Islam and spread their new religion throughout Asia, eclipsing Christianity from the Levant to the Far East. It lasted only from to , and was initially led once again by St Louis. An English contingent was made up largely of men who needed to hold on to lands they had taken by force in the baronial wars of the s.
By joining a crusade they were assured of the protection of the Church, and thus able to keep their newly acquired property. The project was another failure. It collapsed after Louis died of disease while attacking Carthage modern Tunis. Edward reached the Holy Land and was mystified by what he found. The Venetians were supplying the Sultan with all the timber and metal he needed to manufacture his armaments, while the Genoese controlled the Egyptian slave trade.
Like Edward, new arrivals were generally surprised by the realities of life in the East. Italian city states jostled with each other for trade with Christians and Muslims without distinction. Senior churchmen paralysed strategic military initiatives. Noble families argued and betrayed each other without compunction.
So did the representatives of European nation states, jealous of each other's favour or success. Members of the Eastern and Western Churches bickered continuously. Military Orders squabbled with each other and subverted military expeditions when they threatened their own commercial interests. The Knights Templar created the first true multinational banking corporation serving Christians and Muslims alike, while Muslim Assassins continued to pay homage to the Hospitallers.
Native Christians resented their supposed saviours from the West, and would have preferred life under Byzantine or Muslim rulers. Edward got nowhere in such a milieu, so alien to his preconceptions. Like earlier crusades, this one fizzled out, a total failure. Civil wars in the remaining Christian territories in the East hastened the end of the crusading period in the Holy Land. Christian princes burned each other's castles and besieged each other in their strongholds. So when the chips were down, and her new heavily armed "family" shot Detective Carter, she stepped up to help those she realized truly cared for her.
She took an armed stand to help Grace, Zoe and an injured Carter escape, voluntarily choosing to stay behind. We've seen the redemption of Liam, and even Alycia this season, and hopefully this will help towards redemption for Jillian, because by giving Bass Shepherd and COPE the plans to the railgun she truly had committed an act of treason that has ultimately doomed the world.
Later, even Harris reaches out to be there for Grace and Zoe, when it appears that all hope is lost after COPE succeed in destroying the railgun. He too is searching and finding a connection to the only family he has left, Zoe's and his late son's unborn child. He swears to be there for Grace, Zoe and the baby for all of the 58 days left until the asteroid hits.
Even Darius has his family moment, when, with Alycia and Liam's encouragement he realizes he still has a family of sorts to fight for. And, as only Darius can, comes up a plan to save the planet. The only thing is this plan may involve the ultimate sacrifice. Yes, Salvation is all about family. Not only have the characters of the show grown into their own ragtag family, they've generated a family of loyal fans that have grown during the show's amazing second season.
The actors, writers and producers have grown into a family committed to a quality program. With just two episodes left in the second season, they keep raising the stakes with excellent storytelling and are fighting hard to keep that family together. It would be a shame for CBS to break up the family by not giving Salvation a third season, there is simply still too much story to tell.
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